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Diphtheria

Pronounced: Dif-THEER-e-uh

Definition

Diphtheria is a life-threatening infection that spreads easily. The infection most commonly attacks the tonsils, throat, and nose.

Causes

Diphtheria is caused specific bacteria. The infection spreads from person to person through contact with:

  • Droplets of moisture that are coughed or sneezed into the air by an infected person and breathed in by a non-infected person
  • Personal items, such as tissues or drinking glasses, that have been used by an infected person
  • Skin that is infected with diphtheria
Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chance of getting diphtheria include:

  • Having never been immunized against diphtheria
  • Not having had a booster dose in the past 10 years
  • Having a compromised immune system
Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of diphtheria usually begin 2 to 5 days after a person is infected. The most obvious sign of diphtheria is a gray covering on the back of the throat. The covering can detach and block the airway. If left untreated, the bacteria can produce a poison that spreads through the body causing damage to the heart, nerves, and kidneys.

Not everyone who gets diphtheria shows signs of illness, though they may be able to infect others.

Symptoms include:

  • Sore throat and painful swallowing
  • Fever up to 103°F
  • Gray covering on the back of the throat
  • Cough, possibly a barking cough
  • Swollen glands in the neck
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Weakness
  • Skin infection

Swollen Lymph Nodes

Swollen lymph node

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Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Diphtheria will be suspected if the throat and tonsils are covered with a gray membrane.

Your doctor may need to test to confirm the diagnosis. This can be done by collecting a swab for culture or a tissue sample.

Treatment

Diphtheria is a medical emergency that requires immediate care from your doctor. The sooner it is treated, the better the outcome will be.

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. If your doctor suspects diphtheria, your treatment will start right away, even before the lab results are returned. Treatment options include the following:

  • Antitoxin injection
  • Antibiotics
  • Isolation and bedrest
Prevention

The vaccine for diphtheria is safe and is effective at preventing the disease. All children with few exceptions should receive the DTaP vaccine series. This protects against diphtheria, tetanus , and pertussis . A single dose of Tdap vaccine is recommended for children aged 11 years or older, even if they did not receive the DTaP. A booster should be given every 10 years after, or after exposure to tetanus if necessary.

Despite the availability of vaccines to prevent diphtheria, cases are on the rise. If you or your child has not been fully vaccinated, talk to the doctor. There are catch-up schedules available.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
http://www.niaid.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

HealthLinkBC
http://www.healthlinkbc.ca

Caring for Kids—The Canadian Paediatric Society
http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca

References:

Diphtheria. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 9, 2010. Accessed June 9, 2015.

Diphtheria. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Presentable Diseases. Centers for Disease Control website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/dip.html. Updated May 15, 2015. Accessed June 9, 2015.

Immunization schedules for persons aged 0-18 years—United States, 2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html. Updated May 26, 2015. Accessed June 9, 2015.

Td (tetanus, diphtheria) VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.html. Updated February 24, 2015. Accessed June 9, 2015.

Tdap (tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.html. Updated February 24, 2015. Accessed June 9, 2015.



Last reviewed June 2015 by David L. Horn, MD, FACP

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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