A mammogram is a screening test for breast cancer. These types of screening tests play an important role in maintaining good health. While some tests can be done quickly during a regular doctor’s visit, a mammogram requires an additional appointment at a special facility. The test itself is also rather uncomfortable, not to mention the stress a potential cancer diagnosis can cause. Do the benefits of mammograms outweigh these downfalls? The following will help you understand the benefits and risks of a mammogram so that you can make an informed decision about your options.
Screening tests can help identify illnesses and health problems before symptoms arise. For illnesses like cancer, early detection may allow for more treatment options and improve the prognosis.
Mammograms may detect changes in the breast that could be cancerous up to 2 years before a lump can be felt. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), an early stage of a type of breast cancer, can also be found with mammography. An early start to treatment may also stop the cancer before it spreads to the rest of the breast tissue or to other organs.
As a screening test, a mammogram cannot actually diagnose breast cancer. To diagnose breast cancer, other tests or procedures will need to be done to closely examine the suspicious tissue. A mammogram simply suggests that cancer may or may not be present. Limits of the test can lead to false results. The test may suggest that cancer is present when it is not. This is called a false positive. The test may also suggest that cancer is not present when it does exist. This is called a false negative.
Sometimes, a mammogram may suggest that there is a cancerous change in breast tissue when there really is not. Benign (noncancerous) tissue can look suspicious on a mammogram. Follow-up tests to confirm what the tissue is may include additional mammograms, ultrasound exams, breast biopsies, and other medical tests. If the original mammogram was a false positive, which may happen 10% of the time, the additional medical tests and associated stress were unnecessary.
A normal mammogram does not guarantee that you are cancer free. One possibility is that the test result may be a false negative, meaning the mammogram was not able to show a cancer that was there. A clear test may also encourage a false sense of security, which may lead you to ignore symptoms that should be discussed with a doctor.
Radiation can cause cancer and is used during a mammogram. However, the mammogram uses small doses of radiation that are considered safe. Some have voiced concerns about long-term exposure with repeated mammograms. Research has not found a link between mammogram testing and cancer development. There appears to be little risk of harm from this radiation.
Some studies suggest that mammograms can decrease the rate of cancer death, while other studies have questioned these findings. What is agreed on is that the effectiveness of the mammogram may change based on the individual and the type of cancer. For example:
There are many professional, medical, and cancer groups that have their own set of mammography guidelines. The majority of guidelines agree that:
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has provided some added qualifications. The USPTF does not recommend regular mammograms for women 40-49 years of age with average risk of breast cancer. Instead, the task force suggested that each woman in this age group make an individual decision with their doctor based on her personal risks and benefits. Also, they recommend mammogram screening every 2 years for women 50-74 years of age, rather than every year.
Most guidelines do not have a recommended age to stop mammogram screening. The American Geriatric Society recommends mammography frequency changes to every 2-3 years after 75 years of age and the termination of screening if life expectancy is less than 4 years.
Discuss these benefits and harms, as well as any risk factors you may have, with your doctor. This may help you make a decision on whether to have a mammography exam.
Awareness of your own health and periodic check-ins with your doctor will help identify signs of illness that need further testing, as well as ensure regular screenings. Contact your doctor if you notice a change in the look or feel of your breast.
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
National Cancer Institute
Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation
Canadian Cancer Society
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Breast cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 29, 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015.
Breast cancer screening—for health professionals (PDQ). National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-screening-pdq#section/all. Updated October 9, 2015. Accessed November 5, 2015.
Ductal carcinoma in situ. Radiopaedia website. Available at: http://radiopaedia.org/articles/ductal-carcinoma-in-situ. Accessed November 5, 2015.
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Mammogram. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/mammograms-fact-sheet. Updated March 25, 2014. Accessed November 5, 2015.
US Preventive Services Task Force. Clinical guidelines: screening for breast cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(10):716-726.
Last reviewed February 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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