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Animals and Your Health: Pet-Facilitated Therapy


Many people have experienced the soothing quality of petting a cat or bunny, or the infectious laughter that bubbles up when tossing a ball to an energetic puppy. Animals can give us joy on many levels—helping us to forget our worries and pains, better connect with those around us, and enjoy the simple act of being alive.

For many it may not be surprising, then, that the medical field is exploring the health benefits of interacting with companion animals. In fact, many hospitals and other healthcare facilities incorporate animals as treatment tools for physical and emotional therapy.

Pet-facilitated therapy (PFT), or animal-assisted therapy, involves bringing animals to a group or individual with the hopes of providing a positive therapeutic or health effect. The therapy may occur anywhere from a Red Cross facility after a traumatic event or a nursing home or hospital. Some studies and anecdotal evidence seem to support the usefulness of animals in helping people to feel better and connect to those around them.

Trauma Survivors

When disasters such as earthquakes, tornados, and bombings occur, we often see our canine companions on the scene helping to search for people in the rubble. But the work of dogs, cats, and other animals behind the scenes can also have a positive impact on a trauma survivor.

Pet-facilitated therapy appears to help children and families deal with the pain and emotional trauma associated with hospitalization or a traumatic event. Visits from volunteer animals may help patients who have pets at home maintain a more normal living during their hospital stay. In addition, playing with the animals often helps people to take a much-needed mental and physical break from the stresses of what they are going through.

The Elderly

Studies have shown that PFT can help to improve social interaction, psychosocial function, life satisfaction, social competence, and psychological well being, while reducing depression in adult home residents. It is also thought that interaction with these animals can help break the cycle of loneliness, hopelessness, and social withdrawal that is often seen in older adults. Many nursing homes and adult home-visit services will use companion animals as a means to promote interaction between the residents. PFT has been shown to be beneficial in elderly schizophrenic patients.

Children

For many, it is probably no surprise that animals can work wonders for children's emotional and social development. For instance, a child with a newly fitted prosthetic arm can practice his grasping skills by using a brush to groom a dog, or a child with a new prosthetic leg might improve his balance while throwing a ball to a dog. Even beyond the physical therapy, many would say that the emotional therapy these animals provide is priceless in helping children learn confidence, gain self-respect, and focus on their abilities instead of on their limitations.

Work has also been done on using animal-assisted therapy with autistic and intellectually disabled children. Time with dogs, horses, and even dolphins can as be used as a powerful motivator to learn and develop new skills, interact with the world around them, and try new things.

Theories on Why Pet-Facilitated Therapy Works

Several ideas have been proposed to explain how animals may help improve well-being. Animals may do the following:

  • Remind people of home
  • Provide a more natural environment in the hospital or care facility
  • Provide nonthreatening reassurance and nonjudgmental acceptance
  • Provide nonverbal and tactile comfort
  • Facilitate exercise, play, and laughter
  • Provide a link with reality to enhance emotional stability

Resources:

The American Veterinary Medical Association
http://www.avma.org

Shriners Hospitals for Children
http://www.shrinershq.org

Canadian Resources:

The Natural Connection
http://www.thenaturalconnection.ca

Therapeutic Paws of Canada
http://www.tpoc.ca

References:

Animal-assisted therapy. American Human Society website. Available at: http://www.americanhumane.org/interaction/programs/animal-assisted-therapy/. Accessed September 10, 2013.

Bans MR, Banks WA. The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002;57:M428-432.

Barak Y, Savorai O, Mavashev S, Beni A. Animal-assisted therapy for elderly schizophrenic patients. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2001;9:439-442.

Brickel CM, Brickel GK. A review of the roles of animals in psychotherapy and the elderly. International Journal of Ageing and Human Development. 1980;12:119-128.

Brodie SJ, Biley FC. An exploration of the potential benefits of pet-facilitated therapy. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 1999;8:329-337.

Francis GM, Turner J, Johnson S. Domestic animal visitation as therapy with adult home residents. Intern J Nursing Studies. 1985;22:201-206.

Mudzyk A, Bourque M, Guilbert H, Seguin AD, Savoye MJ. Animal assisted therapy in a nursing home. Soins Gerontol. 2011 Mar-Apr;(88):11-13.

Redefer LA, Goodman JF. Brief report: pet-facilitated therapy with autistic children. J Autism & Dev Disorders. 1989;19:461-467.

Reimer DF. Pet-facilitated therapy: An initial exploration of the thinking and theory behind an innovative intervention for children in psychotherapy. Dissertation Abstracts Intern. 1999:60(5-B):2363.

Sobo EJ, Eng B, Kassity-Krich N, Canine visitation (pet) therapy: Pilot data on decreases in child pain perception. J Holist Nurs. 2006;24:51-57.

Teeter LM. Pet therapy program: Proposal for the US Department of Health and Human Services 1996 Secretary’s Award. J American Veterinary Medical Association. 1997;210:1435-1438.



Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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