Periodontal is a word meaning “around the tooth.” Periodontal disease is a condition in which the tissue (gums, deeper supporting tissue, and bone) around a tooth or teeth become infected and inflamed. Periodontal disease includes both gingivitis and periodontitis.
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Periodontal disease is caused by an overgrowth of the bacteria that live naturally in the mouth. These bacteria are responsible for the sticky white substance that develops on teeth called plaque. When plaque stays on a tooth long enough, it hardens into a solid material called calculus or tartar. This material is much more difficult to remove from teeth than plaque. Over time, the presence of calculus causes gum inflammation or gingivitis. Gingivitis is a more mild form of periodontal disease, affecting the gums. It is almost always reversible with appropriate treatment.
If gingivitis is not halted through careful treatment, then the inflammation may spread below the gum line, affecting the deeper tissues and bone that surround and support the teeth. This condition is known as periodontitis. Untreated periodontitis can destroy the bone and other supporting tissues, resulting in eventual tooth loss.
Many cases of periodontitis begin with gingivitis. However, it is possible for the deeper infection of periodontitis to begin without the more superficial gingivitis having been noticed.
Periodontal disease is a serious condition that needs to be thoroughly and carefully treated by your dentist. A variety of studies suggest the possibility of an association between periodontal disease and:
The chance of developing periodontitis increases with age. Approximately 8.5% of people aged 20-64 have periodontal disease, and 5% of adults aged 20-64 have moderate-to-severe periodontal disease. Seventeen percent of people aged 65 and older have the condition. Unfortunately, studies suggest that only a fraction of people with periodontitis are aware that they have the condition and are receiving treatment.
What are the risk factors for periodontal disease?
What are the symptoms of periodontal disease?
How is periodontal disease diagnosed?
What are the treatments for periodontal disease?
Are there screening tests for periodontal disease?
How can I reduce my risk of periodontal disease?
What questions should I ask my dentist?
Where can I get more information about periodontal disease?
Albandar JM, Brunelle JA, Kingman A. Destructive periodontal disease in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States, 1988-1994. J Periodontol. 1999;70(1):13-29.
Periodontal Disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/OralHealth/periodontal_disease/. Updated March 10, 2015. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Gum (Periodontal) Disease. NIH SeniorHealth website. Available at:
Accessed August 17. 2016.
Gum disease information. American Academy of Periodontology website. Available at: http://www.perio.org/consumer/gum-disease.htm. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Khader YS, Albashaiveh ZS, Alomari MA. Periodontal diseases and the risk of coronary heart and cerebrovascular diseases: a meta-analysis. J Periodontol. 2004;75:1046-1053.
Periodontal (gum) disease. National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research website. Available at: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/FindDataByTopic/GumDisease. Updated October 06, 2014. Accessed August 17. 2016.
Last reviewed August 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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