With so many people affected by the common cold and the flu, it may seem impossible to avoid catching one, or both. But you can greatly reduce your chances. Arm yourself with the following information about the common cold and the flu—and don't be the next victim.
The symptoms for a cold and the flu are somewhat similar. This easy-to-read chart can help you determine which infection you may have.
|Fever||Rare||Usual, high (100ºF-102°F [37.8ºC-38.8°C]) last 3-4 days|
|General aches, pains||Slight||Usual; often severe|
|Fatigue, weakness||Sometimes||Usual, can last up to 2-3 weeks|
|Extreme exhaustion||Never||Usual; at the beginning of the illness|
|Chest discomfort, cough||Mild to moderate, hacking cough||Common; can become severe|
Source: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
A cold is a minor infection of the throat and nose. More than 200 different viruses are known to cause symptoms of a cold—although rhinoviruses and coronaviruses cause the majority of them. Cold symptoms usually last about 1-2 weeks. Rarely, a cold can turn into a lower respiratory infection in young children.
Colds are extremely contagious. A cold is transmitted by droplets of fluid that contain the cold virus. These droplets become airborne when an infected person sneezes, coughs, or speaks. You contaminate yourself by inhaling these droplets or touching a surface that the viruses have landed on and then touching your eyes or nose. To prevent getting a cold, take these simple precautions:
Avoid spreading your cold to others by:
Antibiotics will not cure a cold. In fact, nothing can cure a cold. But, certain things can help you reduce your discomfort. These include:
The flu is in an infection of the upper respiratory tract. It is caused by the influenza virus and is spread through the air. The flu is highly contagious. When an infected person sneezes, coughs, or speaks, tiny droplets full of flu particles are expelled. Because these droplets are small, they are suspended in the air long enough for another person to inhale them.
During each flu season, one or more specific types of the influenza virus are responsible for causing the flu. Many times, people may have one of many viruses that cause flu-like symptoms, but not actually be infected with the influenza virus.
The flu and its symptoms are more severe, and in most cases more numerous, than those of the common cold. The flu can lead to bronchitis or pneumonia. In addition, it can be life-threatening for the elderly, people with lung disease, and anyone with a weakened immune system.
A flu shot can lower your chance of getting the flu. You should get vaccinated between September and January (or later since the flu season can last much longer).
The US Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone over six months of age should get vaccinated against the flu each year. Anyone who wants to reduce their risk of the flu should consider the vaccine.
Hand washing can also prevent the flu, or any flu-like illness. Even if someone in your home has the flu, you can reduce your risk of getting sick by washing your hands. If soap and water are not available, hand sanitizers are also effective.
Most importantly, when you have the flu, you need rest. And until your symptoms are gone, it is a good idea to not go back to your full activity level. You also need plenty of fluids.
For most healthy people who come down with the flu, treatment with antiviral medications are not necessary. They may be recommended for people who have other chronic health conditions, are severely ill, or have suppressed immune systems. Antiviral medications may help relieve symptoms and shorten the time you are sick. They must be taken within 48 hours of the first symptoms. Some kinds of seasonal influenza viruses are resistant to antiviral medications.
Antiviral medications include:
Oseltamivir, and perhaps zanamivir, may increase the risk of self-injury and confusion shortly after taking, especially in children. Children should be closely monitored for signs of unusual behavior.
To relieve the aches and fever associated with the flu, you can try acetaminophen, found in over-the-counter medications such as Tylenol. For congestion, stuffy nose, and cough, you may want to try a combination of decongestant and antihistamine.
You usually do not need to call a doctor if you have signs of the flu or a cold. However, you should contact your doctor if you are at high risk for complications or if you experience any of the following difficulties:
Because the influenza medications listed above may be able to reduce the symptoms of influenza and prevent hospitalization and death among high-risk persons (for example, those above age 65, young children, and persons with chronic illnesses requiring frequent medical attention), you and your doctor may choose to develop a flu plan if you fall into a high-risk category. By following such a plan you may be able to start taking an anti-flu medication quickly in the unlikely event your yearly flu vaccine does not protect you against the symptoms of influenza.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
Public Health Agency of Canada
Baker CJ, Pickerling LK, Chilton L, et al; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Recommended adult immunization schedule: United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med. 1 Feb 2011. 154(3):168-173.
Birth-18 Years & "Catch-up" Immunization Schedules—United States, 2013. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/hcp/child-adolescent.html. Updated January 29, 2013. Accessed September 27, 2013.
Influenza in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 15, 2013. Accessed September 27, 2013.
Is it a cold or the flu? National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/Flu/Pages/coldOrFlu.aspx. Accessed Accessed September 27, 2013.
Upper respiratory infection (URI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us. Updated September 3, 2013. Accessed September 27, 2013.
1/30/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Public health advisory: Nonprescription cough and cold medicine use in children—FDA recommends that over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold products not be used for infants and children under 2 years of age. US Food and Drug Administration website.
11/9/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us: Cowling BJ, Chan KH, Fang VJ, et al. Facemasks and hand hygiene to prevent influenza transmission in households: a cluster randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(7):437-446.
Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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