If men are reluctant to see their physicians when they are sick, imagine how often they see them when they feel well. However, screenings can provide critical information to help prevent serious medical problems. While there is considerable debate regarding the value of certain routine screening tests for men, most authorities agree that detecting certain diseases before symptoms develop can often decrease the risk of serious illness and even death. Here is a guide to the most commonly recommended screening examinations and tests for men.
There are four ways to screen for cancer, and more commonly, precancerous polyps, on the inside wall of the rectum and colon. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), beginning at age 50, men of average risk should follow one of these preferred testing schedules:
Another option for men who are unwilling or unable to have the above tests is having the stool checked yearly for signs of cancer.
Men who are considered to be at high risk for colorectal cancer may need more frequent screening. High risk includes:
If you are at all unsure about your risk status, talk to your doctor about how often you should have colorectal screening.
During a routine exam, the doctor may do a digital rectal exam. The doctor inserts a gloved finger into the rectum to detect any prostate enlargement, nodularity, or asymmetry that may indicate cancer. The exam takes approximately 30-60 seconds.
While it has become a controversial issue, the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test can be used as a screening tool for prostate cancer. Organizations like the US Preventative Services Task Force (USPSTF) and the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommend against the PSA test, highlighting the potential harms, like having to undergo unnecessary surgery. The ACS and American Urological Society stress the need to make an informed decision about prostate cancer screening.
What should men do? Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of screening. If you decide to be screened, your doctor will do the PSA test with or without the digital rectal exam.
A skin exam can determine if you have any moles or other lesions on the skin that may either be cancerous or precancerous. During a skin exam, which takes five minutes and is painless, a primary care physician or dermatologist studies the skin from head-to-toe, including the scalp. Your doctor may choose to biopsy (take a sample for laboratory analysis) any suspicious lesions. Recommendations for timing and frequency of skin cancer screening have not been clearly established.
If you have a history of skin cancer or previously had lesions removed, your doctor may recommend skin exams on a regular basis.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend routine screening or self-exam of teens and adults for testicular cancer. However, the American Cancer Society notes that men aged 20-39 should have a physical exam every three years to screen for various cancers, including testicular cancer. Talk to your doctor about screening and risk factors for testicular cancer.
Early detection of high blood pressure is extremely important because the longer high blood pressure goes undetected and untreated, the higher your risk of a heart attack , stroke , heart failure, kidney damage, and blindness.
If you already have high blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg or higher), have it checked according to your doctor's recommendations. If your blood pressure is considered high normal (above 120/80 mm Hg), you should have it checked every year. If your blood pressure is normal (below 120/80 mm Hg), screening every two years is usually sufficient.
Your doctor may suggest that you regularly monitor your blood pressure at home.
Cholesterol screening involves a simple blood test to measure your total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Your doctor may also check your level of triglycerides, another fatty substance in the blood. High levels of total and LDL cholesterol (the bad cholesterol), and low levels of HDL cholesterol significantly increase your risk of atherosclerosis , a condition that may lead to coronary artery disease , heart attack, stroke, and other serious vascular problems.
All men aged 35 years and older should have their cholesterol checked. If you are aged 20 years or older and have other risk factors for heart disease, you should also have your cholesterol checked.
The American Diabetes Association recommends screening for all adults aged 45 years or older every three years, or every year if you are at increased risk. You should also be screened if you are of any age and are overweight or obese or have other risk factors for diabetes.
There are a few different blood tests that can be done to check for diabetes. All can be done at a regular office visit, but some require you to be fasting before you come in.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that all people aged 13-64 years old get screened for HIV infection. If you are at high risk for having HIV, you should be screened every year.
At least once a year (preferably twice), a dentist should examine your teeth and gums and check your tongue, lips, and soft tissues in your mouth to determine if you have cavities or problems of the gums, tongue, and mouth. A full set of x-rays should also be taken periodically to pinpoint areas of special concern.
The American Optometry Society recommends an eye examination every 2 years for adults 18-60 years old. Older adults should have yearly eye exams. Also if you wear contact lenses, take medications that can affect the eye, or have diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of eye disease, your eyes should be checked more often. Talk to your doctor if you experience any changes in your vision.
While some of these tests can be embarrassing or uncomfortable, it is important to endure them because they can help prevent common and serious diseases. Keep in mind that if heart disease, cancer, or other major illnesses run in your family, these screenings and examinations are even more important. Encourage the men in your life to be screened as suggested.
American Cancer Society
National Cancer Institute
Canadian Family Physician
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
Colorectal cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 10, 2014. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Diabetes mellitus type 2. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 4, 2014. Accessed March 4, 2014.
How did the USPSTF arrive at this recommendation? US Preventative Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/prostatecancerscreening/prostatecancerfaq.htm. Published May 2012. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Hypercholesterolemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated February 11, 2014. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Moyer VA. Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventative Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;17(157):120-134.
Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Comprehensive Eye and Vision Examination. Available at:http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-1.pdf. Updated April 28, 2005. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Prostate cancer screening. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 19, 2013. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Revised Recommendations for HIV Testing of Adults, Adolescents, and Pregnant Women in Health-Care Settings. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. 2006; 55(RR14);1-17.
Screening for prostate cancer: current recommendation. US Preventative Services Task Force website. Available at: http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/prostatecancerscreening.htm. Published May 2012. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Seminoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated October 18, 2013. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Skin cancer screening. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/screening/skin/Patient/page3. Updated March 3, 2014. Accessed March 4, 2014.
Wolf A, Wender R, Etzioni R, et al. American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of prostate cancer. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2010;60:70-98.
4/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Yee J, Kim DH, et al. Colorectal cancer screening. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/ColorectalCancerScreening.pdf. Updated 2013.
Last reviewed March 2014 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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