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Acute Bronchitis(Bronchitis, Acute; Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, Chest Cold)
Definition

Acute bronchitis is a short-term respiratory infection that may be referred to as a chest cold. The bronchi branch off the trachea, taking air from the outside into the lungs. In bronchitis, the bronchi become inflamed and produce more mucus.

Bronchi of Lungs

lungs and bronchioles

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Causes

In most cases, acute bronchitis is caused by a viral infection. There are times when it may be caused by a bacterial infection.

Risk Factors

Factors that may increase your risk of getting acute bronchitis include:

  • Having a cold or the flu
  • Contact with a person with a respiratory viral or bacterial infection
  • Smoking
  • Exposure to second-hand smoke
  • Allergies or asthma
  • Exposures to respiratory inhalants at work, such as:
    • Ammonia
    • Chlorine
    • Minerals
    • Vegetable dusts
  • Poorly functioning immune system
Symptoms

Acute bronchitis may cause:

  • Cough, with or without sputum
  • Increased sputum production
  • Trouble breathing
  • Wheezing

You may also have other cold or flu symptoms, such as slight fever, sore throat, and nasal congestion.

Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask you about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Tests are rarely needed. The following may be recommended if the bronchitis is severe or the diagnosis is not clear:

Sputum cultures to check for the presence of bacteria are rarely helpful.

Treatment

Acute bronchitis can be treated with rest and medications. It can take up to a month for the cough to go away.

Your doctor may recommend:

  • Over-the-counter medications to relieve discomfort and reduce fever
    • Note: Aspirin is not recommended for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin.
  • Staying hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids throughout the day to help make your cough more productive
  • Inhalers—to improve symptoms in adults with a history of asthma

Antibiotics are not used for treatment because acute bronchitis is usually the result of a viral infection.

Cough suppressants are not generally recommended. Coughing is important to help you clear extra mucus from your lungs.

Avoid using cough suppressant medication. Coughing is necessary to clear mucus from your lungs. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that cough supressants not be used in children less than 2 years old. The FDA also supports not using them in children less than 4 years old.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of acute bronchitis:

  • Use proper handwashing hygiene, especially if you are in contact with someone who is sick
  • Avoid contact with people who have respiratory viral or bacterial infections.
  • If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection and increases recovery time.

RESOURCES:

American Lung Association
http://www.lung.org

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
http://familydoctor.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The College of Family Physicians of Canada
http://www.cfpc.ca

The Lung Association
http://www.lung.ca

References:

About antibiotic use and resistance. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/community/about/index.html. Updated September 13, 2013. Accessed February 14, 2014.

Acute bronchitis. American Academy of Family Physicians Family Doctor website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/acute-bronchitis.html. Updated September 2013. Accessed February 14, 2014.

Acute bronchitis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 21, 2013. Accessed February 14, 2014.

Smith SM, Fahey T, Smucny J, Becker LA. Antibiotics for acute bronchitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;3:CD000245.

2/3/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Rantala A, Jaakkola JJ, Jaakkola MS. Respiratory infections in adults with atopic disease and IgE antibodies to common aeroallergens. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68582.



Last reviewed June 2015 by David L Horn, MD, FACP

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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