Dyspareunia refers to pain in the pelvic area. It occurs during or after sexual intercourse. Although this condition can occur in both men and women, it is more common in women.
The cause is believed to be related to physical factors at least 75%-80% of the time.
Some pain occurs during vaginal entry but decreases over time. This is often caused by not having enough lubrication due to a lack of sexual arousal and stimulation. It can also be due to some medicines. Antihistamines can cause dryness. Frequent douching can also cause problems.
Other causes in women include:
The cause of dyspareunia may also be related to psychological factors, although this is less common. Some examples include:
These factors may lead to a condition called vaginismus . This is painful and involuntary contractions of vaginal muscles. It is usually a response to past sexual trauma or other painful circumstances, but it can also be the result of chronic irritation from a physical cause.
The most common causes of pain in men are:
Pain occurs at the time of ejaculation.
Pain that occurs while obtaining an erection may be associated with:
Factors that increase your chance of dyspareunia include:
In men and women, viral or bacterial infections may be to blame.
Pain associated with dyspareunia may:
Female Reproductive System
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The diagnosis is often made based on your symptoms. Your doctor will take a medical and sexual history. A physical exam will be done.
For men and women:
To treat prostatitis and urethritis, the doctor may recommend:
Sometimes, surgery may be done to treat foreskin and other erectile problems.
When no physical cause of the pain can be found, sex therapy may be helpful. Some concerns need to be worked through in counseling. These may include:
American Academy of Family Physicians
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Sex Information and Education Council of Canada
Sexuality and U
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Dambro M. Griffith's 5-Minute Clinical Consult . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001.
Dyspareunia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed . Updated February 28, 2013. Accessed March 12, 2013.
Female sexual dysfunction. The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Practice Bulletin No. 119 . April 2011.
Heim LJ. Evaluation and differential diagnosis of dyspareunia. Am Fam Physician . 2001;63(8):1535-1544.
Lightner DJ. Female sexual dysfunction [review]. Mayo Clin Proc . 2002;77:698-702.
Ryan K, Kistner R. Kistner's Gynecology & Women's Health . 7th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, Inc; 1999.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Andrea Chisholm, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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