Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the white blood cells called helper T cells (CD4). These cells are part of the immune system. They fight off infections and disease. As a result, an HIV infection can leave you vulnerable to severe illnesses.
AIDS is a late stage of HIV infection. It reflects severe damage to the immune system. One or more opportunistic infections will also likely exist. Opportunistic infections are a type of infection that only occur in people with compromised immune systems.
HIV is spread through contact with HIV-infected blood or other body fluids. This includes semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. The infection may be the result of HIV-1 or HIV-2 virus.
AIDS is caused by the destruction of T cells. The destruction is caused by the HIV virus.
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HIV is most commonly spread through:
Rarely, HIV can be spread through:
Factors that may increase your chance of HIV infection include:
HIV infection increases the chances of getting AIDS.
HIV may not cause symptoms for a number of years.
After these initial symptoms pass, there may be no symptoms for months to years. The following symptoms may occur over the years:
If left untreated, HIV infection progresses to AIDS. This may happen when the number of T helper cells fall below certain levels and opportunistic infections arise. People with AIDS are susceptible to many health complications. These may include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. To confirm a diagnosis of HIV infection, your doctor will run tests. These may include:
Medications can prevent, delay, or control the development of AIDS in many people infected with HIV.
Antiviral drugs are often given in combination. Categories of these drugs include:
People who have developed AIDS may be given other medications to help fight infections that are more likely to occur with a weak immune system. These may include antibiotics or antifungal medications.
To help reduce your chance of HIV infection:
If you are a health care worker or work in a correctional facility, take these steps:
If you live in a household with an HIV-infected person:
If you are infected with HIV, take these steps to prevent spreading HIV to others:
American Foundation for AIDS Research
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
AIDS Committee of Toronto
Canadian AIDS Society
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3/8/2007 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Auvert B, Taljaard D, Lagard E, et al. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med. 2005;2(11):e298.
2/21/2008 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Mallal S, Phillips E, Carosi G, et al. HLA-B5701 screening for hypersensitivity to abacavir. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(6):568-579.
6/11/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Del Romero J, Castilla J, Hernando V, Rodríguez C, García S. Combined antiretroviral treatment and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1: Cross sectional and prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2010:c2205.
10/8/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: British Association of Sexual Health and HIV (BASHH) recommendations on testing for sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men. Available at: http://www.bashh.org/documents/BASHH%20Recommendations%20for%20testing%20for%20STIs%20in%20MSM%20-%20FINAL.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed October 8, 2014.
Last reviewed June 2015 by David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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