Islet cells are the cells in the pancreas that make insulin. Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is the transfer of islet cells from a donor to another person. The procedure is being studied as a method to treat select people with chronic, uncontrolled type 1 (and some type 2) diabetes.
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Pancreatic islet cells are made up of alpha and beta cells. Type 1 diabetes develops when the beta cells in the pancreas are destroyed. They are destroyed by the body's own immune system. Without these cells, the body is unable to make insulin. As a result, people with type 1 diabetes need daily insulin injections.
Transplants are most commonly used for persons with recurrent severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugars) and/or who are also receiving kidney transplants. Newly transplanted islet cells can produce insulin. This allows better daily control of the blood sugars with a lower risk of hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia occurs when too much insulin is self-injected or when injected insulin to fails to adapt to changes in the body's glucose use. The transplant reduces, or even may eliminate, the need for self-injection.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Before your procedure, talk to your doctor about ways to manage factors that may increase your risk of complications, such as:
A review board will determine if you will be eligible for a transplant. Once on the transplant list, one may have to wait months or years for a suitable donor.
Your doctor will order blood tests. A physical exam will be done. These tests will assess the extent and severity of diabetic complications. This includes damage to the kidneys.
You and the donor will be carefully screened by blood and serum to optimize a match. The better the match, the less chance for islet rejection.
Local or general anesthesia may be used. Local anesthesia will numb the area. You will be asleep with general anesthesia.
Pancreas transplant surgery is major surgery and requires special expertise in select medical centers. The cells are delicate and may fail even in the best of circumstances.
Before surgery, islet cells are removed from a donor pancreas. Usually, these cells are used within the next 24 hours.
An incision will be made in the abdomen. A small plastic tube will be placed through the incision and into a major blood vessel of the liver. An ultrasound will be used to locate the right position. Islets cells will be injected through the tube. The cells travel through the vein and attach to the liver. When successful, they will begin making insulin.
Your blood glucose may be normal immediately following transplantation.
Your immune system may attack the transferred cells. To prevent this type of attack, called rejection, you will be given medications to suppress your immune system.
Similar medications to suppress the immune system are usually needed for the rest of the person’s life to prevent rejection.
Generally several hours
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
Your doctor may repeat the process several times to transfer more islet cells.
During your stay, the hospital staff will take steps to reduce your chance of infection, such as:
There are also steps you can take to reduce your chance of infection, such as:
It is important for you to monitor your recovery after you leave the hospital. Alert your doctor to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American College of Surgeons
American Diabetes Association
Canadian Diabetes Association
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
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Islet transplantation. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: http://www.diabetes.org/living-with-diabetes/treatment-and-care/transplantation/islet-transplantation.html. Updated April 7, 2014. Accessed August 25, 2014.
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6/3/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116244/Diabetes-mellitus-type-1: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, et al. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2011;124(2):144-154.
Last reviewed September 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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