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Definition

Gastroschisis is a birth defect that creates a gap in the muscles and skin of the abdominal wall. Intestines can push through the gap to the outside of the body. A gastroschisis tends to occur to the right of the belly button.

A gastroschisis may be small and only involve a section of intestines or be large and involve other abdominal organs. It may be associated with intestinal atresia.

Normal Anatomy of the Abdominal Organs

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Causes

Gastroschisis develops before birth during development of the abdominal wall. It is not clear why, but the abdominal wall does not close completely in one area. It may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Risk Factors

Gastroschisis is more common in babies born to teenage mothers. Other factors that may increase the chances of your baby having gastroschisis include:

  • Maternal smoking
  • Alcohol during pregnancy
  • Urinary tract infection and STD around the time of conception
Symptoms

Intestines will be visible outside of the body. Often to the right of the bellybutton.

Diagnosis

Gastroschisis may be suspected after blood tests in the mother. A fetal ultrasound will show if there are intestines outside of the abdominal wall. Early diagnosis will help make birth and treatment plans. Gastroschisis not diagnosed before birth will be apparent as soon as the child is born.

Additional imaging tests may be done to help plan treatment.

Treatment

Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. Treatment may include one or more of the following:

Medication

The intestines are often damaged. Your baby may have difficulty with digestion and need supportive care. Medications may include:

  • Dextrose and electrolyte solutions for nutrition and hydration.
  • Antibiotics if an infection is present or possible.
Surgery

The goal of surgery is to put intestine and other organs back in place and close damaged wall. The type of surgery will depend on the extent of the gastroschisis.

Large defects may require several surgeries over a long period of time.

Prevention

To help reduce your chance of your baby having gastroschisis:

  • Quit smoking before and during pregnancy.
  • Avoid alcohol during pregnancy.

If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor about prenatal care and testing.

RESOURCES:

Birth Defects
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov

March of Dimes
http://www.marchofdimes.com

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

March of Dimes Canada
http://www.marchofdimes.ca

Public Health Agency of Canada
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References:

Birth defects: diagnosis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/diagnosis.html. Updated February 25, 2011. Accessed March 30, 2014.

Birth defects: facts about gastroschisis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/gastroschisis.html. Updated April 15, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.

Feldkamp ML, Reefhuis J, et al. Case-control study of self-reported genitourinary infections and the risk of gastroschisis: Findings from the national birth defects prevention study 1997-2003. BMJ 2008; 336: 1420-1423.

Gastroschisis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated May 9, 2014. Accessed May 30, 2014.

Holland AJ, Walker K, Badawi N. Gastroschisis: an update. Pediatr Surg Int. 2010;26(9):871-878.



Last reviewed May 2014 by Kari Kassir, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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