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Encephalopathy(Glycine Encephalopathy; Hepatic Encephalopathy; Hypoxic Encephalopathy; Statin Encephalopathy; Uremic Encephalopathy; Wernicke’s Encephalopathy; Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy; Hypertensive Encephalopathy; Toxic-metabolic Encephalopathy)

Pronounced: En-SEF-a-lo-PATH-ee


This is a general term for a disease that alters a person’s brain function and mental state. Some types of encephalopathy include:

  • Glycine encephalopathy—caused by a metabolic disorder (how the cells make energy)
  • Hepatic encephalopathy—caused by liver disease
  • Hypoxic encephalopathy—caused by reduced oxygen to brain
  • Static encephalopathy—permanent brain damage
  • Uremic encephalopathy—caused by toxins remaining in the body, usually due to kindney failure
  • Wernicke’s encephalopathy—caused by a thiamine deficiency, usually due to alcoholism
  • Hashimoto’s encephalopathy—an autoimmune disorder (when your immune system attacks your body’s cells)
  • Hypertensive encephalopathy—caused by very high blood pressure
  • Toxic-Metabolic encephalopathy—a general term to describe encephalopathies caused by infections, toxins, or organ failure

Treating the cause may reverse symptoms in some types. But, some forms of may result in lasting changes in the brain. If brain injury is severe and cannot be reversed, the disease can be fatal.


The cause depends on the type of encephalopathy. Causes include:

  • Infection
  • Head trauma
  • Metabolic dysfunction
  • Brain tumor or increased pressure on the skull
  • Exposure to toxins
  • Poor nutrition
  • No oxygen or blood flow to the brain
  • Organ failure

Oxygen and Blood Flow to the Brain

oxygen brain lungs

If the flow of oxygen to the brain is disrupted, it can cause encephalopathy.

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors

Risk factors vary. For example, alcohol abuse puts you at risk for Wernicke’s or Hepatic encephalopathy.


Symptoms may include:

  • Sudden or progressive changes in memory
  • Inability to concentrate
  • Impaired thinking
  • Abnormal drowsiness
  • Mood changes
  • Progressive loss of consciousness
  • Subtle personality changes
  • Neurological symptoms:
    • Involuntary muscle twitches and flapping movements
    • Tremor
    • Muscle weakness and unsteadiness
    • Abnormal eye movements
    • Seizures

Signs that encephalopathy may be getting worse include:

  • Severe confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Severe drowsiness
  • Coma

Medical care is needed right away for these symptoms.


Your doctor will:

  • Ask about your symptoms
  • Take your medical history
  • Do a physical exam

Tests may include:


The doctor will try to stop or reverse the underlying condition. Treatment options include:


Depending on the cause, your doctor may prescribe medications. For example, if the cause is a toxin in the body, your doctor may prescribe medications to lower the levels of the toxin. Some infectious causes can also be treated.

Medications may be needed for seizures.

Vitamins or supplements may also be given. In some cases, these may help prevent damage to the brain.

Dietary Changes

Your doctor may suggest changes to your diet. For example, if you have liver damage, you may need to limit how much protein you eat.

Tube feeding and life support may be needed, especially in the case of coma.


In some cases, you may need an organ transplant or dialysis. With dialysis, toxins are removed from the blood through a filtering process.


Many causes cannot be prevented. Take these steps to help reduce your chance of getting encephalopathy:

  • Get early treatment for liver problems. If you have any of the above symptoms, call your doctor right away.
  • If you have a disease, see your doctor regularly.
  • Avoid overdosing on drugs, alcohol, or medicines.
  • Avoid being exposed to poisons or toxins and infections or carriers of infections, such as mosquitos.


National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


Canadian Liver Foundation

Health Canada


Encephalopathy. California Pacific Medical Center website. Available at: Updated May 2004. Accessed May 26, 2011.

Encephalopathy. Congress of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: Updated July 2007. Accessed May 26, 2011.

NINDS encephalopathy page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: Updated November 2010. Accessed October 23, 2014.

Smith N. Hepatic encephalopathy. EBSCO Health Library website. Available at: Updated September 2010. Accessed May 26, 2011.

Last reviewed October 2014 by Michael Woods, MD, FAAP

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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