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Alzheimer’s disease is a chronic, slowly progressive, gradual in onset, irreversible condition that destroys brain nerve cells and other structures in the central nervous system. People with Alzheimer’s disease slowly develop dementia—a loss of memory and intellectual and social skills that result in confusion, disorientation, and the inability to think, reason, and understand. The decline in cognition and memory results in activities of daily living to performed with increasing difficulty.

People with Alzheimer’s disease (and other dementias) have symptoms that can change from day to day. There seem to be occasional times when improvement may be noticed, but over time the disease progressively worsens. The most common symptoms is memory loss.

Areas of the Brain Affected by Alzheimer's Disease


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It has been estimated that over 4 million Americans have Alzheimer’s disease and the total healthcare costs are estimated to be over $100 billion in the United States alone. The number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease is expected to triple during the next 20 years as the baby boomer generation ages with an associated rise in the economic burden.

Causes

Scientists know that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by damage to brain nerve cells, as well as a loss of certain chemicals that facilitate communication between nerve cells. What is still not clearly understood is why this damage occurs.

Brain autopsies of Alzheimer's patients show 2 characteristic brain abnormalities:

  • Neurofibrillary tangles—These are found inside nerve cells in the hippocampus and temporal and frontal lobes of the brain. A type of protein called tau is found within these tangles.
  • Neuritic plaques—Located outside the nerve cells, the plaques are surrounded by dying neurons (nerve cells) and contain a sticky protein called beta amyloid. The presence of the plaque seems to be linked to reduction of an important chemical called acetylcholine. Acetylcholine helps neurons relay messages in the brain and is essential for memory and learning.

What are the risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease?
What are the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease?
How is Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed?
What are the treatments for Alzheimer’s disease?
Are there screening tests for Alzheimer’s disease?
How can I reduce my risk of Alzheimer’s disease?
What questions should I ask my doctor?
What is it like to live with Alzheimer's disease?
Where can I get more information about Alzheimer’s disease?

References:

Alzheimer's dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 11, 2012. Accessed August 22, 2012.

Alzheimer's disease medications fact sheet. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-medications-fact-sheet. Updated July 2010. Accessed August 22, 2012.

What is Alzheimer's? Alzheimer’s Association website. Available at: http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_what_is_alzheimers.asp. Accessed August 22, 2012.



Last reviewed August 2015 by Rimas Lukas, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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