Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder. Normally, red blood cells are disc-shaped and flexible. In sickle cell disease, hemoglobin, which is the chemical within red blood cells that carries oxygen around the body, is abnormal. This causes red blood cells to collapse into a crescent or sickle shape. It also causes the red blood cells to be abnormally stiff and fragile. These cells clump together and clog up small blood vessels throughout the body. When blood vessels are blocked by sickle-shaped red blood cells, parts of the body are deprived of oxygen. This can cause severe pain and damage to organs and tissues. Abnormal red blood cells are also destroyed at a high rate, causing a shortage of red blood cells (anemia).
Red Blood Cells: Normal and Sickled
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Sickle cell disease is a genetic disorder. If you receive one defective gene from each of your parents, then you will have sickle cell disease. If you only have one defective gene, you are said to have sickle cell trait, but not sickle cell disease. Although you won’t usually have any symptoms, you can pass this gene on to your children.
What are the risk factors for sickle cell disease?
What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease?
How is sickle cell disease diagnosed?
What are the treatments for sickle cell disease?
Are there screening tests for sickle cell disease?
How can I reduce my risk of sickle cell disease?
What questions should I ask my doctor?
What is it like to live with sickle cell disease?
Where can I get more information about sickle cell disease?
Facts about sickle cell disease. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/facts.html. Updated September 27, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell disease. Nemours Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/en/parents/sickle-cell-anemia.html. Updated September 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell disease in adults and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 6, 2013. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell disease in infants and children. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 6, 2013. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Sickle cell trait. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/sicklecell/traits.html. Updated September 27, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
What is sickle cell disease? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/sca. Updated September 28, 2012. Accessed July 1, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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