Treatment for ovarian cancer begins with a surgery called a laparotomy. The extent of the surgery from this point will depend on how advanced your cancer is. Even if your cancer has not spread outside of your ovary, radical surgery is usually the best first treatment for ovarian cancer. Generally, the fewer cancer cells left behind after surgery, the better your outcome.
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that all women with ovarian cancer have surgery performed by a gynecologic oncologist—a doctor with special training in the treatment of cancers of the gynecologic organs.
Laparotomy is the opening of your abdomen by traditional surgery. Depending on your situation, your surgical procedure may involve:
For some early tumors, surgery alone may be a cure.
Most of the time, an incision will be made up and down in the midline of your abdomen, through which the ovary or female organs will be removed. The vagina will be sewn closed from the inside in such a way that sexual intercourse will not be hindered.
Lymph nodes will be sampled routinely, and those appearing suspicious will be taken out. The omentum is a fatty tissue around the intestine. It will be sampled if not entirely removed, as this is often involved with tumor deposits. The liver and diaphragm muscle will be explored, as will the bowel and the fluid that is inside your abdomen. Organs and lymph nodes that are removed will be sent to the pathologist for analysis.
The goal of the surgery is to remove as much tumor as possible. This is called debulking. Some believe that optimal debulking is the most important intervention that cures the patient. Optimal debulking is currently defined as leaving no piece of tumor behind that is greater than 1.0 cm in size. In the rare situation where more limited surgery is performed, the extent of the surgery will be dictated by what the surgeon finds.
Detailed guide: ovarian cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/ovariancancer/detailedguide/index. Accessed January 6, 2014.
Ovarian cancer. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated December 31, 2013. Accessed January 6, 2014.
Ovarian cancer. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/ovarian. Accessed January 6, 2014.
9/18/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: FDA clears a test for ovarian cancer. US Food and Drug Administration website. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm182057.htm. Published September 11, 2009. Accessed January 6, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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