You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Many cases of melanoma are found during routine physical exams or when doing a skin self-exam.
Skin Exam and Mole Biopsy
Your skin and moles will be examined. If any of your moles look like they may be cancerous, a tissue sample will be taken and sent to a laboratory for testing. A pathologist will examine the tissue sample under a microscope to check for cancer cells. Other moles will be monitored over time.
Lymph Node Exam and Biopsy
The lymph nodes in the groin, underarm, neck, or areas near the suspicious mole may also be examined. Enlarged lymph nodes suggest that the melanoma may have spread beyond the mole. A sample of lymph node tissue may need to be removed to test for cancer cells. It is important to know whether the melanoma has extended beyond the tumor site to involve lymph nodes as this changes both the stage of the tumor and the treatment required.
Once melanoma is found, tests are performed to find out the thickness of the primary lesion and whether the cancer has spread and, if so, to what extent. This information helps determine which treatment is best for you. Melanoma, like other cancers, is classified according to stages. The lower the stage, the more likely the tumor is to be cured and the easier it is to treat.
Staging is a careful attempt to determine the extent of the cancer invasion. It considers the thickness of the tumor, presence of cancer cells in local lymph nodes, whether the cancer has spread beyond its primary localization and, if it has, what body parts are affected. Depending on the thickness of the original tumor, additional tests to determine staging may include:
The following stages are currently used to classify melanoma:
Stage 0 (Melanoma in situ)
In stage 0, abnormal melanocytes are found in the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin. These abnormal melanocytes may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called melanoma in situ.
In stage I, melanoma has formed. Stage I is divided into stages IA and IB. In stages IA and IB, melanoma is not in found lymph nodes or distant organs.
Stage II is divided into stages IIA, IIB, and IIC. All stage II melanomas are not found in found lymph nodes or distant organs.
Stage III: In stage III, the tumor may be any thickness and it has spread to regional lymph nodes without distant spreading.
In stage IV, the melanoma has spread to other places in the body, beyond the original area of the skin. This can include distant lymph nodes or organs.
Diagnosing melanoma. Melanoma Research Foundation website. Available at: http://www.melanoma.org/understand-melanoma/diagnosing-melanoma. Accessed April 3, 2014.
Melanoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated March 19, 2014. Accessed April 3, 2014.
Melanoma skin cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003120-pdf.pdf. Updated January 9, 2014. Accessed April 3, 2014.
Last reviewed March 2016 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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