Leukemia exists as individual cells that travel throughout the body. It does not form solid tumors like most other cancers. As a result, surgery is not a primary treatment for leukemia. Surgery may be done to relieve complications or to support a treatment process.
Leukemia cells circulate in the blood and can deposit in organs, where they become trapped. The spleen is a small organ that filters the blood and is vulnerable to a build-up of leukemia cells. When the cells build up in the spleen, it can lead to swelling, which causes pain, fatigue, a full feeling after eating very little, and easy bleeding.
A splenectomy (the removal of the spleen) may be the only way to relieve symptoms. This surgery can often be done laparoscopically through small incisions in the abdomen. It is possible to live without a spleen, but it increases the risk of certain bacterial infections, such as pneumonia. Extra protection against some infections can be attained with vaccines and lifestyle changes.
An access catheter line may be implanted. Catheters eliminate the need for multiple needlesticks. Types of catheters that may be used include:
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma (ALL) management. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116388/Acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-lymphoma-ALL. Updated August 26, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114798/Acute-myeloid-leukemia-AML. Updated July 6, 2016. October 4, 2016.
Bone marrow transplantation. Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/hematology_and_blood_disorders/bone_marrow_transplantation_85,P00086. Accessed February 11, 2016.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL)/small lymphocytic leukemia (SLL). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114637/Chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-CLL-Small-lymphocytic-leukemia-SLL. Updated March 7, 2016. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Chronic myeloid leukemia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115889/Chronic-myeloid-leukemia-CML. Updated March 19, 2015. Accessed October 4, 2016.
Leukemia—acute lymphocytic (adults). American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003109-pdf.pdf. Accessed February 11, 2016.
Leukemia—chronic lymphocytic. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003111-pdf.pdf. Accessed February 11, 2016.
Leukemia—chronic myeloid (myelogenous). American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/003112-pdf.pdf. Accessed February 11, 2016.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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