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Aortic Coarctation—Adult(Coarctation of the Aorta—Adult)
Definition

The aorta is the main artery carrying oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the body. Aortic coarctation is the narrowing of the aorta which slows or blocks the blood flow. It is often associated with other heart and vascular conditions, like abnormal heart valves or blood vessel outpouching. These conditions carry a risk of additional future problems.

Heart and Main Vessels

BP00015_96472_1_aorta.jpg

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Causes

Aortic coarctation is a congenital heart defect, which means it is present at birth. It occurs because of a problem with the development of the aorta while the fetus in the womb.

Risk Factors

Factors that increase your chances of having aortic coarctation include:

Symptoms

Aortic coarctation may or may not have symptoms. Symptoms may include:

  • Cold legs and feet
  • Shortness of breath, especially with exercise
  • Lightheadedness
  • Leg cramps after exercise
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Nosebleeds
  • Fainting
  • Chest pain
Diagnosis

Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Images may be taken of your internal structures. This can be done with:

Treatment

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:

Surgery

The narrow section of the aorta can be removed surgically. The two healthy ends can be reconnected.

Balloon Angioplasty

A tiny catheter tube is inserted into a blood vessel in the leg and threaded up to the aorta. There, a balloon is inflated to expand the narrow area. A stent may be placed to keep the area open.

Balloon Angioplasty

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Prevention

Since aortic coarctation is a congenital defect, it cannot be prevented.

RESOURCES:

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
http://ww2.heartandstroke.ca

University of Ottawa Heart Institute
http://www.ottawaheart.ca

References:

Coarctation of aorta. DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated June 28, 2012. Accessed May 6, 2013.

Coarctation of the aorta. American Heart Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/CongenitalHeartDefects/AboutCongenitalHeartDefects/Coarctation-of-the-Aorta-CoA_UCM_307022_Article.jsp. Updated January 24, 2011. Accessed May 6, 2013.

Coarctation of the aorta. Nemours Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidshealth.org/teen/diseases_conditions/heart/coa.html. Updated August 2010. Accessed May 6, 2013.

What are congenital heart defects? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/chd/chd_what.html. Updated July 1, 2011. Accessed May 6, 2013.



Last reviewed May 2013 by Michael J. Fucci, DO ; Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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