Most people have heard over the years that cardiovascular disease is the number one killer in the United States. Cardiovascular disease comes in many forms, any of which may lead to a heart attack or stroke . What you may not know is that men and women may have different heart attack risk factors and warning signs.
If you're a woman, heeding the subtle warnings can make a significant difference.
Your heart is a constantly running pump and needs a constant source of oxygen for fuel. The oxygen is picked up in the blood and delivered to the heart muscle through blood vessels called arteries. Blockages or damages to these coronary arteries slow or block the flow of blood to the hard working heart muscle. In a short period of time the lack of blood flow causes damage to the heart muscle and a heart attack. If the oxygen is restored quickly, long term damage may be prevented. Continued lack of oxygen can cause significant damage to the heart which can lead to disability or even death.
The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis or coronary artery disease (CAD). These conditions are caused when fatty deposits, called plaque, build up on the walls of the arteries. This build up causes a narrowing of the arteries that restricts the blood flow. This plaque can also cause a tear or rupture in the artery, which leads to the formation of a blood clot. The blood clot can cause a sudden blockage in the blood flow in the artery.
Sometimes, a blood clot can break free from another part of the body and make its way into one of the arteries that supplies the heart. This clot will also block the blood flow. Other times, a spasm of the artery can contribute to a heart attack.
When it comes to heart attack symptoms, men and women share several similarities.
Similarities in symptoms include:
Women often have other, more subtle symptoms that may seem confusing, and not so obvious.
Other common symptoms in women may include:
Remember that some of these symptoms can occur over hours, days, or weeks. If you feel these symptoms, don't wait more than five minutes to call for medical help. Even if you have a friend or relative with you, call for medical help rather than drive. If necessary, paramedics can start life-saving treatment on the way to the emergency room. This early care can determine how well you recover.
Most women believe that the breast cancer is their biggest threat to good health. The fact is, heart disease kills six times as many women as breast cancer. This makes heart disease is the number one killer among women as well as men.
There are several factors that increase your chance of having a heart attack. The more factors you have, the higher the risk of a heart attack. In men and women, many risk factors are the same.
Uncontrollable risk factors are those you can't change. These factors include:
Controllable risk factors include those that can be modified by lifestyle changes and medications. These include:
Other factors that are specific to women include:
Before menopause, women have a slightly lower risk of heart attack than men. However, postmenopausal women have similar risk for heart attack as men.
To help reduce your chances of a heart attack, take these steps to modify your lifestyle:
In addition to lifestyle changes, you need to monitor and take care of other health conditions. You can do this by:
Change is not always easy, so start slowly. The more risk factors you control, the better chance you have to ward off a heart attack. Talk with your doctor about the best course of action for you.
Take the time to learn the signs of a heart attack, and don't be afraid to call for medical help.
American Heart Association
National Coalition for Women with Heart Disease
Heart and Stroke Foundation
Public Health Agency of Canada
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ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what. Updated August 8, 2013. Accessed August 12, 2013.
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Warning signs of a heart attack. American Hearth Association website. Available at: http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HeartAttack/WarningSignsofaHeartAttack/Warning-Signs-of-a-Heart-Attack_UCM_002039_Article.jsp. Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed August 12, 2013.
Last reviewed August 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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