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Grillmasters Get a Food Safety Lesson

Two Sides of Grilled Food

Grilled foods are usually considered healthy because they are cooked without fat. For instance, a typical 4-ounce chicken breast cooked on the grill contains about 7 grams of fat, while a 4-ounce serving of fast-food fried chicken contains about 17 grams of fat.

When it comes to preparing food, grilling is a healthier option. Over the past several years, there have been concerns about grilling increasing your risk of getting certain cancers. Compounds from grilling, called heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are the result of cooking meats on high heat. It is not clear at this time if either of these compounds increase your cancer risk. Detailed questionnaires by health officials suggest this is the case, but no evidence proves this occurs outside of controlled animal studies.

Healthy Grilling

Because there is no established link between grilling and cancer risk, no organization has outlined any guidelines for safe grilling. That doesn't mean that you can't take matters into your own hands. There are steps that you can take to lower your risk of these potentially cancer-causing chemicals:

  • Trim the fat. PAHs are formed when fat drips onto hot coals. Flames and smoke redeposit PAHs onto the food. To minimize the PAHs from forming, trim as much fat as you can from the meat.
  • Marinate. HCAs are produced when meat is grilled or cooked at high temperatures causing charring. Some studies suggest that marinating meat before grilling may reduce the formation of HCAs.
  • Precook. Pop the meat in the microwave to partially cook it before grilling.
  • Use smaller cuts of meat. Smaller cuts take less time to grill. You can also flip your food often, which can further shorten grilling time.
  • Remove charred parts. After grilling, cut off any charred parts from the meat.
  • Eat your fruits and veggies. Add variety to your meals by grilling fruits and veggies instead of meat. Vegetables do not produce HCAs.
Safe Grilling

Follow these safe food preparation guidelines during your next grilling adventure:

  • Frequently wash your hands and surfaces. This can prevent cross-contamination of bacteria, such as Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) infection.
  • Use separate plates. Use one cutting board for raw meats and a clean one for other foods in order to reduce bacteria crossover. Be sure to use separate plates, utensils, and platters for raw and cooked foods. For instance, if the raw steaks are carried out on a platter and tongs are used for placing them on the grill, you must use a new clean platter and tongs for taking the cooked steaks off the grill when they are done.
  • Keep the temperatures appropriate. Meats should be refrigerated while marinating and up to the point of being cooked. When the grilling starts, be sure the internal temperature of meats is appropriate to kill bacteria. Use a meat thermometer to check internal temperatures. Leftovers should be refrigerated immediately and tossed if left out more than one hour in hot temperatures.

Here are some minimum safe food internal temperatures:

FoodTemperature
Cooked whole poultry165°F
Cooked chicken breasts165°F
Cooked ground meat160°F
Cooked beef, veal, lamb roasts, and chops145°-160°F
All cuts of cooked pork145°F

Make sure that you allow the meat to rest for a minumum of three minutes after you remove it from the grill.

A Simple Meal on the Grill

With the grilling basics all nailed down, try this great meal cooked mostly on the grill in only one hour!

Marinated Flank Steak

Start with 1-2 pounds of flank steak marinated in a commercial marinade. Or, try your own marinade by mixing together the following ingredients:

IngredientsMeasurements
Cooking oil1/3 cup
Soy sauce1/3 cup
Red wine vinegar1/3 cup
Lemon juice2 tablespoons
Worcestershire sauce1 tablespoon
Dry mustard1 teaspoon
Garlic2 cloves
Pepper1/4 teaspoon

Place the mixture in a large plastic bag, seal, and coat all sides of the meat. Place in refrigerator and marinate for at least one hour or overnight. Cook at least 5 minutes on each side or to degree of doneness desired. Cut steak diagonally across into thin slices before serving.

Corn on the Cob

Take silk (husk) off corn. Place corn cobs on a sheet of heavy foil. Top with several pats of butter and 3 tablespoons water. Wrap corn in foil and seal foil tightly at top to keep butter and moisture in while cooking. Heat on grill for at least 30 minutes or until tender.

Warm Garlic Bread

Take a loaf of Italian or French bread and slice at 1-inch intervals. Warm 1/8 cup butter and mix with 1/8 cup olive oil; mix with several cloves of minced garlic, 1/4 teaspoon pepper, 1/4 teaspoon oregano, and 1/3 cup Parmesan cheese. Spread mixture on bread slices. Place loaf of bread on heavy foil and seal ends to keep in moisture. Heat for about 20 minutes.

Grilled Fruit Kabobs
IngredientsMeasurements
Melted butter1/4 cup
Brown sugar2 tablespoons
Fresh lime for grated lime rind and lime juice1 fresh lime
Cinnamon1 teaspoon

Use any fresh fruit cut into one-inch pieces such as pineapple, apples, nectarines, melon, bananas, or large whole strawberries. In a small bowl, stir together melted butter or margarine, brown sugar, grated lime rind, lime juice, and cinnamon until sugar is dissolved. Thread fruit alternately onto metal skewers. Brush kabobs with butter or margarine mixture and place on barbecue grill. Grill for 6-8 minutes, turning frequently and brushing generously with butter mixture, until the fruit starts to brown and is heated through.

RESOURCES:

American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
http://www.eatright.org

Food Safety
http://www.foodsafety.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Dietitians of Canada
http://www.dietitians.ca

Health Canada
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

References:

A backyard chef's guide to healthy grilling. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/news/features/a-backyard-chefs-guide-to-healthy-grilling . Updated May 20, 2013. Accessed September 24, 2013.

Barbecue and food safety. US Department of Agriculture website. Available at: http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/wcm/connect/d468f3d9-fb6c-4109-88d7-2931f7132098/Barbecue_Food_Safety.pdf?MOD=AJPERES . Updated May 2011. Accessed September 24, 2013.

By types of food. Food Safety website. Available at: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/types . Accessed September 24, 2013.

Chemicals in meat cooked at high temperatures and cancer risk. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/cooked-meats . Updated October 15, 2010. Accessed September 24, 2013.

McDonald's USA nutrition facts for popular menu items. McDonald's website. Available at: http://www.nutrition.mcdonalds.com/getnutrition/nutritionfacts.pdf . Accessed September 24, 2013.

Safe minimum cooking temperatures. Food Safety website. Available at: http://www.foodsafety.gov/keep/charts/mintemp.html . Accessed September 24, 2013.

Salmon CP, Knize MG, Felton JS. Effects of marinating on heterocyclic amine carcinogen formation in grilled chicken. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1997;35:433-441.



Last reviewed September 2013 by Michael Woods, MD

Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.

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