An ankle sprain is a partial or complete tear of the ligaments that support the ankle. Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that cross joints and connect bones to each other.
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Ankle sprains may be caused by:
Factors that increase your chance of getting an ankle sprain include:
Symptoms of an ankle sprain may include:
An ankle sprain may not require a visit to the doctor. However, you should call your doctor if you have any of the following:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your ankle will be done to assess the injury.
Images may need to be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Ankle sprains are graded according to the damage to the ligaments. The more ligaments involved, the more severe the injury.
Most sprains heal well. Treatment for a sprained ankle includes:
If you have an ankle sprain, follow your doctor's instructions .
Many ankle sprains cannot be prevented. However, you can reduce your risk of spraining an ankle:
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
Ankle sprain. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 18, 2013. Accessed April 4, 2013.
Kemler E, van de Port I, et al. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types. Sports Med . 2011;41(3):185-197.
Kerkhoffs GM, Handoll HH, et al. Surgical versus conservative treatment for acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD000380.
Renstrom, P, IOC Medical Commission, International Federation of Sports Medicine. Sports Injuries: Basic Principles of Prevention and Care. Boston, MA: Blackwell Scientific Publications; 1993.
Sprained ankle. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00150 . Updated September 2012. Accessed April 4, 2013.
Sprains and strains. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Sprains_Strains/default.asp . Published July 2012. Accessed April 4, 2013.
10/26/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance: Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/19/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : van Rijn RM, van Ochten J, Luijsterburg PA, van Middelkoop M, Koes BW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review. BMJ. 2010;341:c5688.
Last reviewed April 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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