Stuttering is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is interrupted by:
In an attempt to speak, the person who is stuttering may:
The cause of stuttering is not completely understood. Some experts have suggested that stuttering may occur when:
Muscles and Nerves Involved in Speech
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These factors increase your chance of developing stuttering. Tell your doctor if you have any of these risk factors:
Symptoms may include:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. She will also do a physical exam. Diagnosis may be based on:
Treatment can improve stuttering. The main goal is to get and maintain a feeling of control over speech fluency. Recovery rate is about 80%, more in girls than in boys. The doctor or speech therapist can:
Treatment may include:
The National Stuttering Association
The Stuttering Foundation of America
Canadian Stuttering Association
Institute for Stuttering Treatment and Research
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/ .
Bothe AK, Davidow JH, Bramlett RE, et al. Stuttering treatment research 1970-2005:I. Systematic review incorporating trial quality assessment of behavioral, cognitive, and related approaches. Am J Speech Lang Pathol . 2006;15:321-352
Gordon N. Stuttering: incidence and causes. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2002;44:278-281.
Stuttering. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders website. Available at: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/ .
The National Stuttering Association website. Available at: http://www.nsastutter.org .
Perkins WH. Anomalous anatomy of speech-language areas in adults with persistent developmental stuttering. Neurology . 2002;58:332-333
Prasse JE, Kiakano GE. Stuttering: an overview. American Family Physician. 2008;7:1271-1276.
Sommer M, Koch MA, Paulus W, et al. Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stuttering. Lancet. 2002;360:380-383.
Yairi E, Ambrose NG. Early childhood stuttering: persistency and recovery rates. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 1999;42:1097-1112.
Last reviewed September 2012 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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